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Lead in the Dutch environment ; a review of exposure pathways and dispersion models. A pilot study for an integrated chain model

Synopsis

Prognoses of possible effects and risks of chemical emissions into the environment and calculation of the effects of countermeasures are often produced using mathematical models. Most models are developed to describe a part of the total source-to-effect chain or to give results for specific compartments. In this study the models available at the RIVM have been examined for their usefulness in an integrated chain model for the total source-effect-risk chain of lead and lead-210 (a radioactive isotope of lead, Pb-210) in the Dutch environment. An integrated chain model is defined here as a set of relatively complex, deterministic stand-alone models, which have been independently developed and later linked. This report presents a short survey of the emission sources and effects of lead. Inorganic lead is emitted to the atmosphere in rather large quantities by traffic and industrial plants. The source-to effect chain is only partly covered by the available models. On a local scale the incompleteness is restricted to relatively small parts of the chain, like the contamination and transfer of lead from groundwater to terrestrial plants. The development of an integrated chain model is very time consuming, therefore should only be developed if there is a specific demand. Hence it would be advisable to start a follow-up project with an inventory of the demands for integrated models to answer specific questions on lead and to determine what is required: either the development of an integrated chain model or a less detailed but more encompassing integral model.
 

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