Air pollution from industry and traffic was reduced with end of
pipe measures, but also energy policy played an important role.
This led to cleaner fuels and increased energy efficiency. Thanks
to this combination of environmental measures and energy policy the
average life expectancy in Europe was extended 12 months. It is
expected that the air quality will further improve in the coming
decades due to the combination of climate, energy and air pollution
Not all climate measures will improve air quality. Without
additional emission regulation domestic wood burning and the
encouragement of the use of diesel cars and of biofuels could lead
to more air pollution. An integrated approach air quality and
climate change could prevent undesired side effects.
Air pollution remains to be a transboundary issue. More than 90%
of the European population is exposed to concentrations of
particulate matter higher than the guideline values of the World
Health Organisation. According to the experts these guideline
values can only be met with international cooperation.
Decentralisation of the responsibility for air quality to cities,
which is currently being considered in several countries, could not
give sufficient results. As local sources only contribute to 10-20%
of the particulate matter concentrations in a city, national and
international measures remain required.
A large part of the concentration of particulate matter is caused by ammonia emissions from agriculture. Ammonia reacts in the air with the nitrogen oxides from traffic or sulphates from industry to form small particles that can be transported over hundreds of kilometres. In Europe as a while agricultural emissions contribute to more than half of the cases of premature death.
In Europe the number of days with peak concentrations of ozone
smog has decreased, but the average ozone concentration at the
northern hemisphere does not show a declining trend. Amongst others
rising average temperatures are to be blamed. According to the
World Health Organisation also low ozone concentrations cause
health damage. To reduce ozone exposure in Europe, cooperation with
North America and Asia is needed to abate emissions of the
substances that cause ozone: nitrogen oxides, volatile organic
compounds and methane.