Virological and bacteriological research of swimming water on several locations in the Netherlands in the summer of 1989 and 1990
Virologisch en bacteriologisch onderzoek van zwemwater op een aantal locaties in Nederland in de recreatieseizoenen van 1989 en 1990
van Olphen M, de Bruin HAM, Schijven JF, Drost YC, Havelaar AH
RIVM Report 148704001
72 water samples from 22 different recreational sites in the Netherlands were investigated in 1989 and 1990 for enteric viruses, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, Salmonella, Campylobacter and conventional faecal indicator bacteria (thermotolerant coliforms and faecal streptococci). Results were compared with Dutch and EC guidelines for bathing water quality and possible relationships between different groups of microorganisms were analyzed. Enteroviruses were detected in numbers > 1 PFU/10 1 (EC guideline value) in 7/72 samples (9.7%), all influenced by discharges of secondary efffluent. In one of these samples, the number of enteroviruses was > 1 PFU/1 (Dutch guideline value). The numbers of enteroviruses were correlated with thermotolerant coliforms and FRNA-phages. Occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter did not correlate with any of the other microorganisms.