RIVM Report 730501039
A chain model for dioxins is discussed relating dioxin levels in cow's milk to emissions. It was used to explain the elevated dioxin concentrations found in cow's milk at various MSW incinerators. It also served as an aid in the selection of locations for milk analyses in still unexplored areas. And, most important, it enabled the evaluation of executed or proposed measures, such as closure of incinerators, soil clean up, or emission reduction. The model showed that, after implementation of the new emission requirements after November 1993, Dutch cow's milk from the areas around MSW incinerators will hardly exceed background levels, except for some locations at Zaandam where levels of 3-4 pg TEQ/g milk fat will continue to occur, due to high concentrations in soil caused by emissions in the past. Thus, it could be concluded that milk from these areas will not exceed the Dutch milk standard of 6 pg TEQ/g milk fat in the near future.