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Enteroviruses in surface water in the Netherlands - Emission and dispersion calculated with PROMISE and WATNAT - Pilot study

Enterovirussen in het oppervlaktewater in Nederland - Emissie en verspreiding berekend met PROMISE en WATNAT - Pilotstudie

Synopsis

The use of models developed for the emission (PROMISE) and dispersion (WATNAT) of substances to surface water is explored for the quantitative description of the emission and dispersion of enteroviruses to surface water. Modelling of the emission gave the contribution of the discharge of enteroviruses by treated and untreated domestic wastewater. According to the calculations the emission of enteroviruses can effectively be reduced by further reduction of direct discharge. To recommend measurements for improvement of watewater treatment data about the efficiency of the removal of enteroviruses are insufficiently available. Modelling of the dispersion of enteroviruses in surface water gave concentrations of enteroviruses that were very similar to measured concentrations in the large rivers. However, the calculations are still too uncertain to be able to draw conclusions concerning the quality of water for recreational purposes or for the drinking water supply. The modelling can be improved by measuring concentrations of enteroviruses in the Meuse at Eysden, in the Rhine at Lobith, in raw sewage and after wastewater treatment.
 

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