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Air Quality. Annual Survey 1994

Luchtkwaliteit. Jaaroverzicht 1994

Synopsis

The Annual Air Quality Survey gives an overview of air quality and loads on groundwater and surface water due to atmospheric deposition in the Netherlands in 1994. The survey is based on measurements and model calculations and is set up to assess and support policy. The report has a theme-oriented approach: Global Air Pollution, Acidification & Eutrophication, and Dispersion. The issue of each of these themes is illustrated with maps and graphics, accompanied with explanatory text boxes. Global Air Pollution covers the development of the global concentration of compounds contributing to the enhanced greenhouse effect and the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. The thickness and changes taking place in thickness since 1980 are presented for the Netherlands and (on average) for the world as a whole. The change in UV-B loads in the same period, calculated for the Netherlands, is also shown. Since Acidification and Eutrophication are closely related as far as the atmospheric part is concerned, these themes have been discussed in combination. Issues here include spatial distribution, development in time, and frequency distribution of the deposition over forested or ecosystem areas. The theme of Dispersion is discussed according to individual compounds. Air quality for (most of) these is described in terms of (exceedance of) standards, 'defined' per component as to human and ecosystem protection, and for both short-term exposure to sharply raised concentrations and chronic exposure to moderately raised concentrations. These standards have been selected, if available, from legal limit and target values, else from other official standards. Fixed elements included in Dispersion are, wherever possible, spatial distribution, development of (national) mean concentration in time, and frequency distribution of population and ecosystem exposures. Contributions from target groups and foreign countries are given for some compounds. Air quality and atmospheric deposition are characterized to a large extent using the measurement results from the National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML). (Supplementary) data are provided for some components by local, provincial and regional institutions. Dispersion models are applied to calculate either annual mean concentration or annual total deposition where data are non- or insufficiently available. Model calculations are also carried out to determine contributions from target groups and foreign countries, as well as exceedances of air quality standards at the kerbside of roads with heavy traffic. Appendixes support the report with tabular material on observed concentrations at LML stations and exceedances of the air quality objectives, as well as descriptions of models and calculation methods.
 

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