Description and analysis of ambient fine particle concentrations in the Netherlands
Beschrijving en analyses van fijn stof-concentraties in de Nederlandse buitenlucht
26 May 2012, PDF |
90 pages |
Wal JT van der , Janssen LHJM
RIVM Report 723301007
The spatial- and temporal variations in PM10 concentrations in the Netherlands, as measured in the National Air Quality Monitoring Network in the period 1993-1994, were analysed. Concentration gradients were small and differences in concentrations between measuring stations amounted to approximately 20% or less. Local sources like traffic and urban emissions and industrial, agricultural and natural sources may increase PM10 concentrations by about 10%, with the regional background as a baseline. Because PM10 is a sum parameter for fine particles, the composition of PM 10 may vary more than its concentration pattern in the Netherlands. This is mainly determined by large-scale weather systems. Most observed PM10 concentrations are found between 20 and 50 mug/m3 during the year, with little difference between summer and winter. During episodes PM10 concentrations may increase to 4 - 5 times the annual average (>200 mug/m3). Kalman-filtering is a time-varying linear regression technique. It was found to be an adequate method in modelling the daily variations of PM10. The final model used took wind direction, temperature and duration of precipitation as explanatory variables.