Water Outlook 1996; emmissions to air and atmospheric deposition on the Netherlands and the North Sea
Watersysteemverkenningen 1996; emissies naar lucht, en atmosferische depositie op Nederland en de Noordzee
van Liere L, van Jaarsveld HJ, Ros JPM, Paardekooper EM, Elzenga HE, Beurskens JEM, Bleeker A, Booij H, Erisman JW, Hoogervorst NJP, Smeets WLM, Slootweg J, van de Roovaart J, Verstappen G
RIVM Report 732404008
Using the database documented in the TNO/RIVM report, 'Calculations of atmospheric deposition of contaminants on the North Sea', additional data on the emission of some substances to air were collected and their subsequent contribution emissions to air were collected for some substances, and their subsequent contribution to the total load via atmospheric deposition onto the North Sea and Netherlands inland waters evaluated. The percentages with which emissions to air will have to be reduced to reach the environmental quality target were calculated, leading to the following conclusions: 1) Atmospheric deposition is an important source of pollution in both the North Sea and the Netherlands' inland fresh waters, especially for the case of persistent organic substances (PAH, PCB and pesticides). The contribution increases when run-off and seepage are taken into account, mainly in the case of nitrogen. 2) The contribution of emissions to air in the Netherlands (via atmospheric deposition) to the total load in the North Sea, and inland surface waters , is small. 3) Emissions of PAH and PCB to air in the Netherlands contribute about 10% to the total load in the North Sea and inland surface waters. 4) Although the contribution of the Netherlands' emissions to air via atmospheric deposition onto the Netherlands' inland waters is small, the Netherlands is a net exporter of pollutants via air emissions. 5) Emissions to air in the Netherlands contribute substantially to the pesticide load of the North Sea and inland waters. 6) Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals decreases by 10-20% from 1990 to 2000, with the exception of lead, which decreases by 50-60% in the same period. 7) Atmospheric deposition of PAH decreases by only 20% from 1990 to 2000. 8) The uncertainty in the calculations varies with the pollutant studied. Heavy metals are under- or overestimated by 20-50%; NOx by 30%, PAH by 200% and pesticides by 500%.