Shipping and the environmnent. Technical and policy options to reduce emissions for sea going ships and barge
Scheepvaart en milieu. Technische en beleidsmatige mogelijkheden voor het reduceren van emissies door de zeescheepvaart en de binnenvaart
27 May 2012, PDF |
214 pages |
RIVM Report 773002019
The next decades the share of sea going ships and barge in transport emissions will increase, and therefore the importance of shipping for the environment. An important reason for this increase is the decrease in emissions of road transport. Emissions of ships can be reduced in several ways. This report gives an overview of measures related to fuels (conventional fuels, alternative fuels), to techniques (energy saving techniques, techniques related to the combustion proces, 'end-of-pipe techniques' and alternative engine techniques) and technical-logistical measures. As far as possible, costs and effects of the measures are presented. Besides the report gives an overview of policy options to reduce emissions of shipping. The report shows that emission reductions are relatively cost-effective. But it is relatively complex to develop policies to implement these measures.