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Development and suitability of in vitro digestion models in assessing bioaccessibility of lead from toy matrices

Ontwikkeling en bruikbaarheid van in vitro digestiemodellen om bioaccessibility van lood in speelgoed te schatten

Synopsis

Children can be orally exposed to compounds by chewing, sucking and ingestion of toy (parts). Only the fraction of contaminant that is released from the toy can reach the blood stream (internal exposure) and can contribute to toxicity. In present risk assessment the release of contaminants from toy is not considered, or is not determined under physiological conditions. As a consequence, the risk due to exposure to contaminants in toys can be overestimated. With an in vitro digestion model based on human physiology the amount of contaminant can be estimated that is released from toy during sucking and/or digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The present report describes the development of three in vitro digestion models that are based on physiological conditions in children. With these models the release of contaminants from toy can be estimated for several circumstances: 1) sucking on toy, 2) sucking on toy in combination with swallowing of the toy matrix, and 3) swallow of toy matrix without a sucking phase. The digestion models are tested for lead for 4 different toy matrices (chalk for exterior use, chalk, finger paint, paint). The use of in vitro digestion models for exposure assessment of contaminants in relation to guidelines and CONSEXPO is discussed.
 

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