Environmental risk limits for vanadium in water : A proposal for water quality standards in accordance with the Water Framework Directive
Milieurisicogrenzen voor vanadium : Een voorstel voor waterkwaliteitsnormen volgens de Kaderrichtlijn water
26 June 2012, PDF |
75 pages |
RIVM Report 601714021
RIVM has derived environmental risk limits (ERLs) for vanadium in freshwater. Vanadium is a natural element that is used for steel production. The compound is included in the Dutch decree on water quality objectives in the context of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The current standard for vanadium has to be updated according to the new WFD-methodology. The ERLs in this report are advisory values that serve as a scientific background for the Dutch Steering Committee for Substances, which is responsible for setting those standards. New information from REACH: Until now, updating the old standards was not possible because essential data were missing concerning the ecotoxicity of vanadium for algae, and potential food chain transfer. Both aspects are investigated in this report, partly based on information that has become available via REACH. Based on the available data, water quality standards are proposed for long-term exposure (1.2 microgram per litre) and for short-term concentration peaks (3.0 microgram per litre). Both values are expressed on the basis of dissolved concentrations, including the background concentration for Dutch surface waters. Risk limits for effects on aquatic organisms: The proposed values are based on direct ecotoxicity for aquatic organisms. Exposure of humans and/or predatory birds and mammals due to consumption of fish is usually taken into account, but could not be included in the present calculations due to a lack of reliable information.