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State of Zoonotic Diseases 2016

Staat van Zoönosen 2016

Synopsis

Zoonotic diseases are infections that can be transmitted from animals to people. Zoonotic diseases that are relevant to the Netherlands are listed every year in the State of Zoonotic Diseases. This publication includes an examination of the degree to which notifiable diseases among people and animals have occurred.

Trends
No noteworthy changes were observed in 2016 with regard to most zoonotic diseases. The largest proportion of zoonotic infections were again made up of bacterial infections that are transmitted via foodstuffs: Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and STEC. However, the number of cases of leptospirosis is still high, although at lower levels than was the case in 2015. The number of patients with a hantavirus infection in 2016 was also notably high, and an infection appeared for the first time in 2016 involving a type of hantavirus not previously seen in the Netherlands, the Seoul hantavirus.

Highlights
For the first time, brucellosis was observed among dogs in the Netherlands in 2016, caused by the B. suis and B. canis bacteria. The State of Zoonotic Diseases also describes the recent developments concerning meticillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA), and in particular the livestock-associated MRSA. It is worth noting that this bacterium, which is resistant to certain antibiotics, has recently been observed among people who have not been in contact with agricultural animals.

Rodents and zoonotic diseases
Rodents, wild animals and pets, can carry various zoonotic diseases, such as leptospirosis, hantavirus and Lyme. There are various ways in which they can be transmitted to people. Rats, for example, excrete Leptospira bacteria in their urine into water in which people swim. Ticks pick up Lyme bacteria from mice and then bite people. Mice, meanwhile, pass the hantavirus when they urinate in barns, where a person can acquire it when they come to sweep the barn.
 

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