The majority of pregnancies are problem-free. Fortunately, most children come into the world in perfect health. Screenings during pregnancy and shortly after birth can identify any complications, diseases or disorders at an early stage, whereupon treatment can be offered. A screening during pregnancy is termed ‘prenatal’; that after birth is termed ‘postnatal’ and together they are known as ‘perinatal’ screenings.
Drugs taken by humans and animals find their way into the environment. Especially in surface waters, pharmaceutical residues can be found, but also in our soil and groundwater and ultimately, even in our drinking water. RIVM investigates the effects of such pharmaceutical residues on public health and the environment. We research what, and how measures can be taken to lower and prevent the discharge of medicines in the environment.
Improving public health and promoting physical activity are core tasks of the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). Physical inactivity is associated with chronic conditions such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, overweight and obesity. These conditons cause a large burden on the health care system and on health care costs. Physical inactivity is a global public health priority. RIVM is actively involved in this topic, both at national and international level.
Everyone in the Netherlands – at a certain point in their lives - will be invited to take part in one of the national population screening programs. Most programs are intended to identify (life threatening) diseases at the earliest possible stage so that prompt treatment can be given. The screening programs help to enhance public health. In case of the Down’s syndrome screening, the program is meant to inform parents on their options.
Probit functions are part of a quantitative risk assessment (QRA), used to estimate the number of acute victims as a result of inhaling toxic substances in an accident in which dangerous substances are involved.