[Heavy metals in surface water, sources and measures. SPEED-document heavy metals.]
Zware metalen in oppervlaktewater, bronnen en maatregelen. SPEED-document zware metalen
Coppoolse J , Bentum F van , Schwartz MJC , Annema JA , Quarles van Ufford CHA
RIVM Report 773003001
This document is a product of the SPEED project (Source reduction cooperation Project aimed at Effective Emission reduction of Diffuse sources). Emissions in the Netherlands of priority heavy metals of the Rhine and North Sea action programmes, including Arsenic, to water and air and reduction measures, especially for diffuse sources, are presented. The future development of the heavy metal load to surface water is estimated for three scenarios: (1) autonomous (2) current policy and (3) additional measures. The goal of the Rhine and North Sea action programme (RAP/NAP) to reduce the emissions to surface water in 1995 (70% for mercury cadmium and lead, 50% for the other five metals) will not be realised for mercury, copper, nickel, zinc and lead. On the long term this goal can be realised with additional measures. The goal of the North Sea action programme to reduce the atmospheric emissions with 50% will not be realised for chromium, copper, nickel, zinc and arsenic. Building material, such as tubing, galvanised steel and sheet lead, is the major source of heavy metals in surface water. Only with drastic measures that also need a long time to implement (substitution of tubing and gutters takes 20 to 40 years) substantial reduction of the emissions can be realised. Source measures only are not sufficient. While in the Netherlands there is an elaborate sewer system, additional measures at municipal treatment plants can compensate the tempory lack of source measures. Source measures remain important, because the autonomous growth of diffuse sources cause an increase of the emissions.