Lindane: use, emissions and fate in the Rhine Basin
Het gebruik, de emissies en de verspreiding van lindaan in het Rijnstroomgebied
Knoop JM , Puijenbroek PGM van , Wortelboer FG
RIVM Report 733008003
The objective of this study was to estimate the use, emissions and aquatic fate of lindane in the Rhine Basin from 1985 to 2000. The use of lindane in the Rhine Basin is based on its agricultural use in the five most important riparian states: Germany, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands for 1985 and 1990. Based on anticipative measurements on the different uses in these countries, hardly any change was to be expected in the period 1990 - 2000. Monitored data up to 1993 more-or-less confirm this assumption. Six major emission pathways are distinguished: 1) agricultural applications, 2) erosion, 3) domestic use, 4) atmospheric deposition directly onto surfacewaters, 5) atmospheric deposition via non-paved areas and 6) runoff from urban areas. In 1985 agriculture and atmospheric deposition together comprised over 70% of all emissions whereas in 1990 households and agriculture were calculated to be responsible for almost 80% of all emissions inside the Rhine Basin. The aquatic fate in the Rhine Basin was calculated with the water quality model DELTAWAT. Comparison of the calculated with the observed water quality shows in general an overestimation of the emissions in 1985 by a factor ranging from 1 to 2, whereas the estimates for 1990 looked fairly accurate. Since the monitored discharges showed unexplainable discrepancies, further analysis of the emission estimates was not very useful. Assuming an overestimation of the sources by a factor of 1 to 2 in 1985 and of the 1990 emission estimates within a range of 50%, the 50% emission reduction objective of the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR) in 1995 in comparison with 1985 has most likely already been met. The water quality objective for the year 2000, however, will most certainly not be met or even be approached in most parts of the Rhine Basin. The ICPR objectives for emissions and water quality seem to be in conflict.