Enterovirus concentrations at collection sites of surface waters for drinking water production
Enterovirusconcentraties bij innamepunten van oppervlaktewater voor de bereiding van drinkwater
26 May 2012, PDF |
18 pages |
Theunissen JJH, Nobel PJ, van der Heide R, de Bruin HAM, Veenendaal D, Lodder WJ, Schijven JF, Medema GJ, Kooij D
RIVM Report 289202013
This report summarises all measured enterovirus concentrations in surface waters, which are used as source for drinking water production, for the period 1978-1996. Most of these measurements were performed in the large rivers during the winter period, when concentrations reach maximum levels. In the large rivers enterovirus concentrations were on average 0.4-3.0 per litre, reaching a maximum of 13 per litre. In other large surface waters (IJsselmeer, Haringvliet, Drentsche Aa) concentrations were on average 0.014-0.022 per litre, reaching a maximum of 0.45 per litre. An indication of the treatment required to produce safe drinking water from surface water can be derived assuming a maximum allowable concentration of 1.83 x 10-7 viruses per litre in drinking water (risk of infection of 10-4 per person per year). The required treatment was on average 6-7 log units, with a maximum of 8 log units for surface water from the large rivers. For other surface waters the required treatment amounted to 5 log units on average and 6 at maximum.