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Emissions and dose from sources of ionising radiation in the Netherlands - Annual report 2001 on radiation policy monitoring

Emissies en doses door bronnen van ioniserende straling in Nederland - Jaarrapport 2001 'Beleidsmonitoring straling'


This first annual report on 'Radiation policy monitoring' gives an overview of the human-induced radiation doses in the Netherlands. Also investigated are the course in time and the effect of policy on the radiation dose of members of the public. Radiation doses are attributed to the enterprises responsible for these doses. For practical reasons the enterprises are divided into the following categories: nuclear facilities, the process industry, medical institutions and companies for non-destructive testing. Consumer products that contain radioactive substances are also discussed. The radiation dose due to radon in indoor air and building materials is not investigated because a separate policy is being developed. Current policy and the associated permit granting are explained so as to enable monitoring of the influence of policy. Policy already carried out in the past is used to obtain a full picture of the developments regarding permits and emissions by the enterprises under study. Emissions from nuclear facilities are shown to be in the order of 0.1 to 10% of the permitted emissions. The radiation dose caused by air and water emissions from the facilities are found to be in the (sub)uSv range, where the dose for members of the public as a result of external radiation remains at a factor of 10 below the permitted dose. The effect of the policy can be indicated to the extent that the radiation dose due to emissions into air and water remain low, partly because reporting requirements in EU context stipulate that water and air emissions be demonstrable as low as reasonably achievable. The discharges of radionuclides from the process industry have decreased, partly because of improved cleaning techniques and partly because of two company closures. Here, the influence of environmental policy in general and radiation protection policy in particular, is not unambiguously determined. The introduction of aggregate permits has greatly improved the survey of permitted equipment in medical institutions, making it now easier to determine the radiation levels due to these institutions. A number of medical institutions have adopted measures such as improvement of shielding, adjustments of borders of premises and access restrictions. The policy introduced has had its effect here. Assuming a standard dose assessment, the limit per premise for about 50 of the locations belonging to the NDO companies could be exceeded. However, the actual radiation dose is expected to be lower. Considering the incomplete picture of the course in time of the radiation dose due to these companies, the influences of the policy cannot (yet) be indicated.

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