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Aggregate consumer assessment of chemicals in consumer products. : Paraben exposure in children as a case study

Geaggregeerde blootstelling van chemische stoffen in consumentenproducten : Blootstelling aan parabenen in verzorgingsproducten voor kinderen als case studie


Consumers are exposed daily to chemicals from non-food consumer products. The level of exposure has to be assessed to evaluate the consequences of exposure to a substance for public health. A risk is calculated by comparing the exposure to a substance with the hazardous effect. Considering that a substance may be contained in several consumer products, the contribution of these products to the total exposure will have to be added up to determine the aggregate exposure. This includes summation of the different routes: dermal, inhalation, and oral.\ More realistic exposure estimation with use data In a case study, RIVM has coupled a model for aggregate exposure to use data of products; how often are they used and how much is used. Four parabens are chosen, which are present in personal care products for young children such as shampoo, baby wipes and hair lotion. It is common practice to use maximal defaults for frequency and amount in exposure estimations. A more realistic exposure estimation can be made using use data, which are gathered with a small survey. Effectivity exposure estimation tested Exposure estimations are performed step-by-step, using so-called tiers.An exposure estimation is at first calculated using (maximal) deterministic values. When risks cannot be excluded, the calculations can be performed in more detail. In this case study, a method for a higher tier is tested. This tier provides information on uncertainties in the exposure estimation as well as which sources contribute the most to the total exposure. Besides, insight is obtained on the distribution of exposure over the population. All this information is relevant for risk assessors and risk managers.

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