Graveland H, Roest HJ, Stenvers O, Valkenburgh S, Friesema I, van der Giessen J, Maassen K
RIVM Report 092330002
The report 'State of Zoonotic diseases 2012' presents an overview of the occurrence of various zoonoses for that year in combination with the long-term trends. In addition, the report contains a few striking incidents that occurred in 2012 and focuses on a theme. This year's theme is zoonoses found in Dutch wildlife (wildlife zoonoses). Striking incidents of zoonotic diseases explained As in previous years, the trends show no signs of strong developments. However, there were a number of striking incidents in 2012, such as the outbreak of Salmonella Thompson through contaminated smoked salmon, an outbreak of parrot disease (psittacosis) in a bird sanctuary in Rotterdam, and the case of a young dog with rabies imported from Morocco. Also remarkable is Clostridium difficile, a bacterium that can infect both humans and animals, usually resulting in diarrhoea. A specific type of Clostridium difficile (ribotype 078) is becoming increasingly common in pigs and thus forms a possible zoonotic risk to humans. The report also includes the state of research on Chlamydia abortus, a bacterium that causes abortions in small ruminants and occasional abortions in pregnant women. Although Chlamydia abortus is common among diary sheep and goats in the Netherlands, currently the public health risk is negligible. However, people who come into direct contact with infected animals, for example specific professional groups like people who work on a farm or in a slaughterhouse, do have an elevated risk of infection. Theme: wildlife zoonoses This theme was chosen because wildlife appears to be a major source of emerging zoonoses throughout the world. More than 70 percent of the emerging zoonoses in the world are caused by wildlife and they can pose a significant and growing public health threat. Monitoring and surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in wildlife is an important tool for quickly identifying (emerging) zoonoses and taking appropriate action. The theme chapter gives an overview of the studies on wildlife zoonoses that are currently taking place. It addresses a number of specific zoonotic risks associated with wildlife in the Netherlands, such as the fox tapeworm in foxes and Trichinella in wild boar.