Biomonitoring van lood en cadmium : Verkenning naar de toegevoegde waarde voor de beoordeling van humane blootstelling en effect
RIVM Report 2016-0215
People are exposed to all kinds of substances (for example via food) , which can be harmful to their health. To accurately estimate the health effects, it is important to determine to what extent these substances actually harm the body. In order to do so it may be helpful to measure concentrations of these substances in body fluids and/or tissues (biomonitoring).
RIVM chose the substances lead and cadmium to investigate to what extent such measurements show a relationship with the exposure as well as the health effects of these substances. RIVM recommends measuring these substances in a Dutch population group. For the purpose of future research it is recommended to study the internal exposure and the effects of lead and cadmium in blood and urine samples of a representative population group.
There were two reasons for choosing lead and cadmium. Firstly, calculations show that for some consumer groups dietary intake may result in values that are close to or slightly above the health based guidance value in question. Secondly, lead and cadmium have one health effect in common: they can both induce kidney damage. Kidney damage can be determined by measuring the presence of certain proteins in urine.
Food is not the only exposure route. Lead and cadmium can be absorbed by the body through several routes: inhalation, ingestion, via the skin or via a combination of these routes. The current approach in the Netherlands is to assess these routes separately, or added together. Using biomonitoring, all relevant routes are assessed simultaneously, providing a more complete picture of the exposure.