Wever D, Coenen PWHG, Dröge R, Geilenkirchen GP, 't Hoen M, Jimmink BA, Koch WWR, Leekstra AJ, te Molder RAB, Peek CJ, van der Sluis SM, Smeets WLM, Vonk J
RIVM Report 2018-0013
Decrease in ammonia emissions; entire time series adjusted downwards With a total 127.4 Gg in 2016, slightly more ammonia was emitted than in 2015 and the ceiling set by the European Union was met (128 kilotons). The increase in ammonia emissions was mainly caused by an increase in the number of dairy cows. This increase in emissions was partly countered by an increase in low-emission housing systems for pigs and poultry. The total ammonia emissions for the period between 1990 and 2015 have been adjusted downwards. This is because of new insights gained into several emission factors that have been used to calculate emissions. These new insights are: the new digestibility of feed (pasture, fodder and silage) for dairy cows causes lower total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) levels in the manure; the emission factor for the surface application of manure has decreased and different digestibilities are used for the periods cows spend in animal houses and grazing, respectively. However, this decrease in ammonia emission is partly countered by new insights into the emission factors from two low-emission manure application techniques.
Decrease in nitrogen oxide emissions; yet the entire time series adjusted significantly upwards Emissions of nitrogen oxides continue to decrease slightly; the Netherlands is, therefore, complying with the emission ceilings set in this regard. The total nitrogen oxides emissions for the period between 1990 and 2015 were adjusted significantly upwards by 29.2 Gg in 2015 as result of the new emission source crop residues applied to soil and the reallocation of the nitrogen oxide emissions from several (agricultural) sources, from the memo-category 11C to the agriculture sector. Emissions of sulphur dioxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds continue to decrease slightly; which means the Netherlands is complying with the emission ceilings set in this regard. Besides the substances mentioned above, the report also includes emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. The emissions of most of these substances decreased during the 1990 - 2016 period. This downward trend may, especially, be attributed to cleaner fuels, cleaner car engines and to emission reductions in industry as a whole.
This report is concluded by the Informative Inventory Report 2018, drawn up by RIVM and partner institutes, which collaborate to analyse and report emission data each year. This is obligatory for member states. The analyses are used to support Dutch policy.