Scientific research and reference literature about the COVID-19 vaccination will be posted on this page. 

Vaccine development

The site of the Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) offers more information about the development of COVID-19 vaccines.

Clinical trials

A number of these vaccines have now been researched in clinical trials. During clinical trials, the vaccine is tested for safety and efficacy in humans. There are three phases in clinical trials:

  • Phase I: The vaccine is given to healthy volunteers to see whether it is safe and what dosage (quantity) is most effective.
  • Phase II: The vaccine is given to target groups that would be vaccinated to see what dosage (quantity) is most effective and how well the immune system responds to it.
  • Phase III: The vaccine is given to an even larger group, consisting of thousands of people, to see how well the vaccine works to prevent COVID-19. People who do receive the vaccine are then compared with people who did not receive the vaccine.  

Once all phases have been successfully completed, the vaccine is ready to use. 

The Royal Netherlands Society for Microbiology (KNVM) and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine keep track on a weekly basis of progress on the development of vaccines that have gone into clinical trials.