Evaluation of dry deposition measurements for monitoring application over the Speulder forest
[Evaluatie van droge depositiemetingen ten behoeve van monitoring boven het Speulder bos.]
Erisman JW, Mennen MG, Hogenkamp JEM, Kemkers E, Goedhart D, van Pul WAJ, Boermans GMF, Duyzer JH, Wyers GP
RIVM Rapport 722108002
Since November 1992 continuous vertical concentration gradients of SO2, NO2 and NH3 as well as relevant meteorological parameters have been measured at a Douglas fir forest site in the Netherlands. It has been investigated whether these measurements are suitable for routine application and if annual average dry deposition fluxes can be estimated. It was found that the gradient method for SO2 and NH3 routine application is possible and annual average fluxes can be estimated. Routine application for NO2 is not yet possible because of frequent instrumental failure and because the influence of chemical reactions on the fluxes can not yet be separated from deposition fluxes. From the results of the measurements dry deposition parameters have been derived. In this report the primary results for SO2 and NH3 are presented. Surface resistances for SO2 and NH3 show strong diurnal variations during dry conditions. Lowest values occur during the daytime. When the leaf surface is wet, Rc values are generally low, independent on the time of the day. An Rc parameterization for SO2 derived from analogous measurements over a heathland was tested at the forest site, A good agreement between measured and modelled dry deposition velocities was obtained with no systematic deviations (40% of variance accounted for). A first order surface resistance parameterization for NH3 has been derived from the measurements at Speulder forest. Under conditions of deposition there is a reasonable agreement between deposition velocities obtained from the parameterization and from the measurements (25% of variance accounted for). Under conditions of emissions ( time), however, there is no agreement between the modelled and 'measured' Vd.