Cluster names (and alternatives between brackets)

Most important characteristics per cluster

Other characteristics

1. Bicycle-friendly (3.74)

Air quality

Healthy transport

Sustainable mobility

  • a city where you can easily get around by bicycle**
  • a city where you can easily get around on foot**
  • a city with good air quality**
  • a city with safe bicycle paths**
  • a city with green areas for recreation**
  • a city where transport vehicles are not allowed to enter the city centre and residential neighbourhoods*
  • a city that aims to minimise heat stress
  • a city with almost no cars

2. Social networks (3.54)



Participation in case of sickness

Social prevention

  • a city in which vulnerable persons are given adequate support*
  • a city where persons with a physical or intellectual disability can also participate*
  • a city where people help each other*
  • a city with a social network that helps prevent loneliness*
  • a city where there are opportunities for initiatives by the residents*
  • a city with active volunteer organisations

3. Age-friendly city (3.35)


Social safety


Social connections

  • a city that is in sync with the wishes and needs of residents*
  • a city where you can grow old peacefully*
  • a city where people relate to each other with respect*
  • a city where people are open to other cultures*
  • a city that is interesting for every age group*
  • a residential environment where the people know each other*
  • a city where everyone is free to be himself/herself*
  • a city where contact between age groups is frequent and happens naturally
  • a city with a diverse population

4. The caring city (3.33)


Focus on the resident


Mindful city

  • a city where people feel safe**
  • a safe city**
  • a city with the necessary facilities that are accessible and available to everyone*
  • a city with public spaces where people meet each other*
  • a city where parents can keep an eye out on children playing outside*
  • a city where a range of residential/living housing concepts are available
  • a city that respects cultural heritage
  • a city where you can also find some private space

5. Healthy and safe (3.20)


Physical layout of neighbourhoods

Playing outside

Growing up

  • a city where children can play outdoors**
  • a city that allows people to recover from stress (uninterrupted sleep, quiet, recreation)*
  • a city where smoking is forbidden in public spaces
  • a city where fireworks are completely forbidden

6. Sustainability and climate (3.15)


Sporting city


Transport and energy

  • a city that encourages an active lifestyle**
  • a city that has sufficient quality facilities for engaging in sports and physical activity**
  • a city with good public transport facilities*
  • a city that encourages participation in sports activities*
  • a city where healthy food is available within walking distance*
  • a city with a high level of biodiversity
  • a city that provides good information to users on where and when the environment can be qualified as good or bad
  • a city where the capacity of the soil to store water is utilised
  • a city with more charging stations for electrical cars

7. Healthy buildings (3.06)


Physical quality of life

Health protection

Healthy/unhealthy environment

  • a city that intentionally creates quiet, relaxed spaces (less noise and wind, more vegetation)*
  • a hygienic city (or a clean city)*
  • a city with little noise pollution*
  • a city that has neighbourhoods with comfortable housing (e.g. adequate ventilation)*
  • a city with sufficient flowing water that helps provide cooling in hot summers
  • a city with green roofs and walls

8. Integrated health policy (3.05)



Good health policy

Health vision

  • a city that approaches health issues from various sectors, including spatial planning, transport, municipal health services et cetera**
  • a city with a municipal government that sets health as a central goal*
  • a city where the healthiest option is also the easiest option*
  • a city where businesses are also partners in health*
  • a city that is innovative
  • a city with municipal officials that are knowledgeable and professional, so that they are not the willing victims of the market
  • a city where funding is diverted from the local community as little as possible
  • a city where people have a say about the source of their food, energy, products et cetera

9. Care and income (3.03)



Care facilities

Small SES (social and economic status) differences



  • a city where care facilities are accessible to all the residents
  • a city with care facilities that are easily accessible
  • a city with small differences in health status between income groups
  • a city where everything does not revolve only around economic growth
  • a city with a low rate of unemployment
  • a city where family practitioners also refer clients to social care
  • a city where people are enterprising
  • a city with small differences in income

10. Inspiring city (2.97)



Attractive city

How people experience the city

  • a city where people want to live*
  • a city where you enjoy being out and about, even without a specific goal*
  • a sociable city with interesting cafés and restaurants as well as a great deal of culture on offer*
  • a dynamic and lively city*
  • a city to be proud of
  • a city with spaces where people meet each other and go for inspiration
  • a city that is worth experiencing (listening, seeing, feeling, smelling)
  • a city that makes you smile now and then (for example via street theatre/art)
  • a culturally inspiring city

11. Future-oriented and sustainable (2.86)




Future-proof city

  • a city where sports and physical activity are taken advantage of as  preventive measures for remaining healthy*
  • a city that is resilient (e.g. climate-proof or economically resilient)*
  • a sustainable and future-proof city (e.g. circular economy, cradle to cradle)*
  • an energy-neutral city
  • a city where residents are increasingly generating their own energy
  • a city where food is produced locally

12. Irregular and 'frayed' (2.05)


Human scale

Urban problems


  • a city with a view of green spaces*
  • a city with surroundings that are aesthetically attractive
  • ample space
  • a city where weeds are allowed to grow
  • a city with residual spaces that are not reserved for any particular use
  • a city with few high-rise buildings
  • a city with noisy spots
  • a city that is not too clean and a bit vague (not too clearly regulated)

** average rating of characteristics is 4.00 or higher (most important)

*average rating of characteristics is 3.00 or higher (important)