RIVM is conducting various studies on immunity (resistance) after a SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. An overview of the current RIVM studies on this topic is presented here. 

There are many differences between the studies that RIVM is conducting on immunity after a SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccination. For example, there are differences in how the study is structured, the age group involved in the study, or the specific aspects of immunity that are investigated. There is also a similarity: all the studies aim to provide more insight into how immunity to the virus is established and how strong that immune response is among different age groups after infection or vaccination.


The IIVAC Study looks at immune responses generated through vaccination against COVID-19. It focuses on healthy people between the ages of 18 and 60 years who get vaccinated, investigating how the immune response is established in this group following a COVID-19 vaccination. Participants will be invited who are taking part in other RIVM studies, such as VASCO and Contest, or via the Personal Records Database (Basisregistratie Personen, BRP).

> IIVAC-onderzoek (in Dutch) 

PIENTER Corona Study

In the PIENTER Corona Study, we are collecting information about antibodies in the blood of the people who are participating. By doing so, RIVM aims to learn more about protecting people from the virus. The focus is on how the body generates antibodies after someone has had the virus. 

PIENTER Corona Study


VASCO, the Vaccination Study on the Coronavirus, is researching the long-term effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccinations in the population of the Netherlands.

Vaccination Study on the Coronavirus

VIDO Study

It is important to know whether people develop effective immunity to the virus after vaccination. This is being investigated in the VIDO Study on immunity after COVID-19 vaccination. 

> VIDO Study

VIVO Study 

The VIVO Study focuses on the immune response after vaccination in relation to ageing. Targeting people between the ages of 73 and 80 years, the study investigates their immune response to the pneumococcal vaccination and the influenza vaccination, comparing it to immunity after COVID-19 vaccination. 

> VIVO Study (in Dutch)


The VOCAAL Study looks at COVID-19 vaccination in older people, focusing on cellular immunity for long-term protection. The target group is people aged 64 years and older. The study investigates their immune response to the vaccinations against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, focusing primarily on the immunological memory of the white blood cells and immunity in the nose, at the entry point for the virus. 

VOCAAL Study (in Dutch)

More research on COVID-19 by RIVM