Factsheet to report Liquid hydrogen carriers: an overview of technical aspects and SVHC properties (RIVM report 2023-0369).

Hydrogen (H₂) is an important and renewable energy source that can be transported and stored through liquid hydrogen carriers. These chemical  substances may have serious effects on human health and the environment, i.e. they can be Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC, in Dutch ‘ZZS’). Additionally, ZZS may be formed during the binding and release of hydrogen. This factsheet explains the concept of liquid hydrogen  carriers, providing insights into 10 promising carriers and indicating whether ZZS are used or formed. It also briefly touches upon recent developments in this technology. RIVM recommends avoiding the use of ZZS in new applications, such as liquid hydrogen carriers, wherever feasible.