The depletion of oil reserves, climate change and dependency on politically unstable regions are all drivers for seeking alternatives to fossil based resources. In a biobased economy, renewable resources come from nature. This includes plants such as algae, crop residues, as well as slaughterhouse waste and other types of biomass. This biomass can be converted for applications in the chemical industry by biorefining or used for bioenergy production, such as biogas. RIVM is studying how biobased economy can contribute to a cleaner and safer environment and to improving public health.