RIVM assists two ministry inspectorates in conducting measurements and interpreting the resultant data. The Health Care Inspectorate is responsible for overseeing the quality of health services, prevention programmes and medical products. The VROM Inspectorate is the regulatory authority responsible for maintaining environmental quality.

To ensure impartiality, the processes of formulating policy and enforcing that policy are undertaken by separate government departments. The Inspectorates act entirely independently as regulatory authorities: they enforce the rules but are not involved in actually making those rules. However, they are expected to draw attention to any lack of clarity in current regulations, and to any legislative requirements which are difficult or impossible to meet in practice.