RIVM has expertise in various methods and approaches to innovate the safety assessment of chemicals and products for humans. Human biology is often the basis of new developments, e.g., with a focus on human-relevant mechanisms of toxicity and human-based in vitro tests. In this context, RIVM invests in human-relevant safety assessment of chemicals, thereby investing in the 3Rs and moving away from animal experimentation. Fields of expertise include inhalation toxicity and medical implant safety.