An assessment of potential health risks shows that graphite rain contains heavy metals and PAHs. For the metals lead, manganese and vanadium, the estimated exposure for young children is undesirably high.
Because people are already exposed to heavy metals in their daily lives, it is desirable to limit extra exposure as much as possible. Especially for lead.
For PAHs, the estimated additional cancer risk is below the level of risk that is considered negligible in the Netherlands (one additional case of cancer per million lifelong exposed persons).
The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has examined wipe samples taken after the emission of graphite rain. For this health risk assessment, RIVM has looked at the exposure of young children through the skin or by putting their fingers in their mouth (hand-to-mouth contact). RIVM has calculated two scenarios: a scenario of one-day exposure and a scenario of repeated exposure over three years. The possible exposure to graphite rain by breathing in through the air or by eating crops and animal products from the surroundings of Wijk aan Zee was not included in the risk assessment. Adult exposure was also not part of the risk assessment. Adult exposure will be lower than that of a child.