This sub-study of the VGO-III programme on livestock farming and residential health focuses on air samples taken using sampling posts in residential areas.

Air samples will make it possible to achieve a clearer understanding of which potential pathogens are present in the outdoor air in the living environment. This allows us to investigate whether certain relevant pathogens occur in the outdoor air. We can compare these findings to pathogens found in local residents and on goat farms. This will give us more information on the possible spread of airborne pathogens that can be linked to pneumonia in proximity to goat farms. 

Research method

For this sub-study, we will install sampling posts near residential homes. These installations use a filter to capture dust particles and any pathogens from the air. The filter is changed weekly and then examined in the laboratory. This gives us a better understanding of which particles are present in the outdoor air in the living environment, and in what concentrations. 
Sampling posts will be installed at locations near residential homes in the vicinity of goat farms, and at locations at greater distances from goat farms. This will make it possible for the researchers to see any similarities or differences between the substances and pathogens in the air near goat farms, and in places where there are no goat farms. The researchers will select suitable locations. The selected locations will be distributed across the area covered by the first phase of the VGO research programme. 


This sub-study started in April 2021. The air measurements will take place over a period of at least 4 months. 

Who can take part in this sub-study? 

Only people who are invited for this sub-study can take part. It is not possible for people to sign up on their own initiative. Study participants allow measuring equipment to be installed in their garden, and researchers stop by once a week to change the filters.

More information

  • If you have questions about this study, send an email to
  • If you have questions about another sub-study, or about the entire VGO-III programme on livestock farming and residential health, send an email to