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A localized outbreak of pertussis in a part of the Bam province, Burkino Faso (West Africa) has been investigated in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis with laboratory methods, and to study the protective efficacy of the vaccine. In the affected area childhood immunization are given according to a simplified vaccination schedule with only two doses of a quadruple DTCP (DPT-IPV) vaccine (against diphteria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis). A total of 115 children was studied (interview, serology, classical culture, PCR test). The clinical diagnosis could be confirmed in a number of children by serology. Among children of 5 years and older some had received two DTCP caccinations. Younger children seemed to be protected better against pertussis. The numbers of children studied are too small however for a precise estimate of pertussis vaccin efficacy in this particular immunization program with simplified schedule.