Humans can be exposed to zoonotic organisms directly via contact with contaminated animals or animal products or indirectly via consumption of contaminated drinking water and food or via contact with a contaminated environment, such as children's sandpits and swimming water. Insects such as mosquitos, lice, fleas or ticks transmit some diseases. We call this insect or tick a ‘vector’ (from the Latin word for carrier).
Zoonoses originating from wildlife sources and transmitted by arthropods such as ticks or mosquitos are considered to become increasingly important in the future. Climate and ecological changes may favour already existing arthropods to expand to other regions and thus new pathogens can be introduced in Europe.
In the Netherlands, zoonoses are of major importance because it is a densely populated country with high numbers of livestock and pet animals and human activities in the vicinity of wildlife such as migrating waterfowl, deer and fox populations. Recent zoonotic outbreaks of importance include avian influenza in poultry in 2003 and Q fever epidemic in 2007-2010. Next to the treats of endemic diseases, such as Q-fever, new zoonotic diseases emerge in the Netherlands. New diseases such as Seoulvirus-infections via kept rats, tick-borne encephalitis infections via ticks, and in animals Brucella canis and Brucella suis have been found in the past few years.
One Health approach
An appropriate response to emerging zoonoses requires close cooperation between medical and veterinary professionals. To share, assess and respond to signals of new and re-emerging zoonotic infections, a systematic One Health approach was developed and officially instituted in the Netherlands. More information about One Health.
RIVM’s research focusses on livestock-, wildlife- and vector-borne zoonoses on the animal-human interface. RIVM has expertise in the field of parasitic zoonoses and provides policy advice to national authorities.
Examples of research activities include Livestock Farming and Neighbouring Residents’ Health, Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases, Q fever, parasitic zoonoses in wildlife and livestock and rodent-borne diseases.
Zoonoses are important to signal and control in an international context. RIVM collaborates in many international activities, coordinates international projects related to zoonoses and advises international bodies such as European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).