On this webpage, we present an overview of publications on tobacco and related products. The publications are ordered by type and year of publication, language is English or Dutch.

RIVM publications: Reports

Title Issue
Recommended Dutch list of prohibited additives in tobacco products and e-cigarettes (in Dutch and English) 2023
Health effects of the 23 flavourings in liquids for e-cigarettes(PDF) (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2022
Tobacco accessories. Products that make tobacco attractive(PDF) (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2022
Flavouring additives in liquids for e-cigarettes: a proposal for a  restricted list(PDF) (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2021
Nicotine products without tobacco for recreational use (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2021
Alternative tobacco products: harm reduction? : Tobacco- and related products that may be less harmful than cigarettes (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2016
The health risks of e-cigarettes to bystanders (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2016
Additives in Dutch tobacco products : Trendanalyses data 2010-2014 (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2016
The health risks of using e-cigarettes 2015
Additives in Dutch tobacco products : Trendanalyses data 2010-2013 (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2015
Speciation of metals and metalloids in tobacco and tobacco smoke : Implications for health and regulation 2015
The health risks of using e-cigarettes (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2015
Detection methods to support the enforcement of the smoking ban (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2014
Additives in Dutch tobacco products : analyses of the data for 2011 (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2013
Public information about additives in tobacco products : the right to know (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2013
Additives in Dutch tobacco products : Analyses of the data for 2010 (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2012
Report and regulation of tobacco ingredients : A comparison of The Netherlands with other countries (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2012
Risk assessment of tobacco additives and smoke components : a method proposal  2012
Revision EU Tobacco products directive 2001/37/EC (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2010
Environmental tobacco smoke and alternatives for smoking rooms (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2010
Environmental tobacco smoke and alternatives for smoking rooms. Appendices 1 up to and including 5 to  340004001/2010 (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2010
What is the Dutch young smoking and why? (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2009
Enforcement of a smoke free indoor environment(PDF) (Dutch) 2009
The effect of smoking bans on the incidence of hart and vascular diseases (PDF)(Dutch) 2009
Ranking of drugs. A comparison of the schadelijkheid of the harmfulness of  drugs (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2009
Adverse health effects of cigarette smoke: aldehydes Crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, hexanal and malonaldehyde  2006
Reduction of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the hospitality industry by ventilation and air cleaning (Dutch report, English synopsis) 2004
The health and addiction risk of the glycyrrhizic acid component of liquorice root used in tobacco products  2003
Nicotine Addiction  2003
Comparison of measured NH4 level and NO emission to declared tar and nicotine values of hundred cigarette brands  2003
The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction  2003
The health- and addictive effectes due to exposure to aldehydes of cigarette smoke. Part 1; Acetaldehyde, Formaldehyde, Acrolein and Propionaldehyde  2003


Scientific articles

Title Issue
Preventing and countering the interference of tobacco industry: Recommendations from the Joint Action on Tobacco Control 2 2024
Secondhand smoke exposure in public outdoor spaces in the Netherlands: The stronger the smell, the more exposure to nicotine 2024
Across the world availability of flavour accessories for tobacco products 2024
In Vitro Assessment of Translocation and Toxicological Effects of Nicotine and Ethyl Maltol from e-Cigarettes Using Air–Liquid Interface-Cultured Bronchial Epithelial Cells 2024
Menthol and related compounds in waterpipe products 2024
Context matters: Neural processing of food-flavored e-cigarettes and the influence of smoking 2024
An ingredient co-occurrence network gives insight into e-liquid flavor complexity 2024
Impact of more intense smoking parameters and flavor variety on toxicant levels in emissions of a Heated Tobacco Product


Circumventing cigarette regulation: product characteristics of cigarette-like cigarillos on the Dutch market 2023
Correction: Reducing attractiveness of e-liquids: proposal for a restrictive list of tobacco-related flavourings 2023
Sensory appeal and puffing intensity of e-cigarette use: Influence of nicotine salts versus free-base nicotine in e-liquids 2023
Effects of providing tailored information about e-cigarettes in a digital smoking cessation intervention: randomized controlled trial 2023
Reducing attractiveness of e-liquids: proposal for a restrictive list of tobacco-related flavourings 2023
Sugars and Sweeteners in Tobacco and Nicotine Products: Food and Drug Administration’s Regulatory Implications 2022
Neuromodulatory and neurotoxic effects of e-cigarette vapor using a realistic exposure method 2022
Methodological Approaches for Risk Assessment of Tobacco and Related Products 2022
Challenges in Predicting the Change in the Cumulative Exposure of New Tobacco and Related Products Based on Emissions and Toxicity Dose–Response Data 2022
Review of industry reports on EU priority tobacco additives part A: Main outcomes and conclusions 2022
Review of industry reports on EU priority tobacco additives part B: Methodological limitations 2022
The Joint Action on Tobacco Control: A cooperation project for strengthening tobacco control in Europe 2022
“It’s Like Jogging Next to the Highway”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Motivations and Experiences of Single-, Dual-, and Ex-Users of IQOS in The Netherlands 2022
Evolution of tobacco products: recent history and future directions 2022
Tobacco products in the European Union Common Entry Gate (EU-CEG): A tool for monitoring the EU tobacco products directive 2022
Flavours and flavourings in waterpipe products: a comparison between tobacco, herbal molasses and steam stones 2022
Comprehensive Dutch market data analysis shows that e-liquids with nicotine salts have both higher nicotine and flavour concentrations than those with free-base nicotine 2022
Variations in cigarette brand characteristics: can consumers tell the difference? 2021
Awareness, use and perceptions of cigarillos, heated tobacco products and nicotine pouches: A survey among Dutch adolescents and adults 2021
Improving the Analysis of E-Cigarette Emissions: Detecting Human “Dry Puff” Conditions in a Laboratory as Validated by a Panel of Experienced Vapers 2021
Conceptual model for the evaluation of attractiveness, addictiveness and toxicity of tobacco and related products: The example of JUUL e-cigarettes 2021
Sensory methods to evaluate perception of flavours in tobacco and other nicotine-containing products: a review 2021
Exploring Neurobehaviour in Zebrafish Embryos as a Screening Model for Addictiveness of Substances 2021
Exploring the gateway hypothesis of e-cigarettes and tobacco: a prospective replication study among adolescents in the Netherlands and Flanders 2021
Effects of Providing Tailored Information About e-Cigarettes in a Web-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial 2021
Risk assessment of components in tobacco smoke and e-cigarette aerosols: a pragmatic choice of dose metrics 2021
It's all the other stuff!' How smokers understand (and misunderstand) chemicals in cigarettes and cigarette smoke 2021
Both non-smoking youth and smoking adults like sweet and minty e-liquid flavors more than tobacco flavor 2021
Feasibility of Manufacturing Tobacco with Very Low Nicotine Levels 2020
Smoking regular and low-nicotine cigarettes results in comparable levels of volatile organic compounds in blood and exhaled breath 2020
Options for waterpipe product regulation: A systematic review on product characteristics that affect attractiveness, addictiveness and toxicity of waterpipe use 2020
Tobacco smoking and smoking cessation in times of COVID-19 2020
GC-MS analysis of e-cigarette refill solutions: A comparison of flavoring composition between flavor categories 2020
Characteristic Human Individual Puffing Profiles Can Generate More TNCO than ISO and Health Canada Regimes on Smoking Machine When the Same Brand Is Smoked 2020
A Method for Comparing the Impact on Carcinogenicity of Tobacco Products: A Case Study on Heated Tobacco Versus Cigarettes 2020
Comprehensive overview of common e-liquid ingredients and how they can be used to predict an e-liquid’s flavour category 2020
E-Liquid Flavor Preferences and Individual Factors Related to Vaping: A Survey among Dutch Never-Users, Smokers, Dual Users, and Exclusive Vapers 2019
Aldehyde and VOC levels in commercial cigarette mainstream smoke are mutually related and depend on their sugar and humectant content in tobacco. 2019
Nearly 20 000 e-liquids and 250 unique flavour descriptions: an overview of the Dutch market based on information from manufacturers 2019
A Combination of Factors Related to Smoking Behavior, Attractive Product Characteristics, and Socio-Cognitive Factors are Important to Distinguish a Dual User from an Exclusive E-Cigarette User 2019
Sensory Evaluation of E-Liquid Flavors by Smelling and Vaping Yields Similar Results 2019
The Health Risks of Electronic Cigarette Use to Bystanders  2019
Analysis of manufacturer's information on tobacco product additive use. 2019
A Deliberate Choice? Exploring the Decision to Switch from Cigarettes to E-Cigarettes. 2019
Perceptions and reasons regarding E-cigarette use among users and non-users: a narrative literature review. 2018
New tobacco and tobacco-related products: Early detection of product development, marketing strategies, and consumer interest. 2018
Sensory analysis of characterising flavours: evaluating tobacco product odours using an expert panel. 2018
An e-liquid flavor wheel: a shared vocabulary based on systematically reviewing e-liquid flavor classifications in literature. 2018
Cigarette Filter Ventilation and Smoking Protocol Influence Aldehyde Smoke Yields. 2018
Effect of Adding Sugar to Burley Tobacco on the Emission of Aldehydes in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke. 2018
Cigarette design features: effects on emission levels, user perception, and behavior. 2018
A New Technique to Determine Emissions of Burley, Virginia and Oriental Tobacco Using Single Puff and Puff-By-Puff Pyrolysis. 2017
Stability and concentrations of humectants in tobacco. 2017
Website use and effects of online information about tobacco additives among the Dutch general population: a randomized controlled trial. 2017
Identification of flavour additives in tobacco products to develop a flavour library 2017
Costs and benefits of smoking (Dutch) 2017
Costs and benefits of smoking (English abstract) 2017
The sensory difference threshold of menthol odor in flavored tobacco determined by combining sensory and chemical analysis 2016
Sugar as Tobacco Additive Tastes ‘Bitter’ 2016
Author's response to: "Harmful effects from one puff of shisha-pen vapor: methodological and interpretational problems in the risk assessment analysis" 2016
A test strategy for the assessment of additive attributed toxicity of tobacco products 2016
An inventory of methods for the assessment of additive increased addictiveness of tobacco products 2016
An inventory of methods suitable to assess additive-induced characterising flavours of tobacco products 2015
Regulation of emissions of tobacco products other than cigarettes 2015
Potential harmful health effects of inhaling nicotine-free shisha-pen vapor: a chemical risk assessment of the main components propylene glycol and glycerol 2015
The effect of tobacco additives on smoking initiation and maintenance 2015
Simple determination of sugars in cigarettes 2014
Simple and Fast Determination of Ammonia in Tobacco 2014
Tobacco smoke-related health effects induced by 1,3-butadiene and strategies for risk reduction 2013
Hazardous compounds in tobacco smoke 2011
Subchronic inhalation of mixtures of cigarette smoke constituentss in Xpa-/-p53+/- knock-out mice: a comparison of intermittent with semi-continuous exposure to acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and acrolein 2007
Role of acetaldehyde in tobacco smoke addiction 2007
The relation between the quantity of ammonium compounds in tobacco and the nitrogen monoxide (NO) levels in the smoke of cigarettes marketed in the Netherlands 2006
Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition 2006
Contribution of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition to tobacco and alcohol addiction 2006
Significance of ammonium compounds on nicotine exposure to cigarette smokers 2005
Letter to the editor 2004
Determination of nicotine and cotinine in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry 2003
The role of nitric oxide in cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction 2002


WHO reports

Title Issue
Standard operating procedure for determination of nicotine, glycerol and propylene glycol content in the tobacco of heated tobacco products. WHO TobLabNet Official Method SOP15. 2023
WHO study group on tobacco product regulation. Report on the scientific basis of tobacco product regulation: ninth report of a WHO study group. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2023 (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 1047). 2023
Information sheet: measuring priority emissions in heated tobacco products, importance for regulators and significance for public health. 2021
WHO study group on tobacco product regulation: Report on the scientific basis of tobacco product regulation: eighth report of a WHO study group. 2021
Information sheet on  WHO TobLabNet methods for measuring priority contents and emissions in tobacco and related products 2020
Background paper to WHO TobReg on sugar content in tobacco products. 2019
Applicability of WHO TobLabNet SOPs 04 and 06 to measure Nicotine and Humectants in waterpipe tobacco emissions. WHO FCTC Technical Progress Report. 2018
Feasibility of manufacturing cigarettes/tobacco with reduced addictiveness potential. Report: consultation on tobacco addictiveness reduction measures, Berlin, Germany, 15–16 May 2018. 2018
Novel, new and modified tobacco or related products. Tobacco product regulation. Basic handbook. 2018
Cigarette characteristics and design features. WHO Technical report. 2017
Applicability and adaptability of the WHO Tobacco Laboratory Network standard operating procedures for cigarettes to waterpipe tobacco. WHO Technical report. 2017
Novel tobacco products, including potential reduced exposure products: research needs and recommendations. WHO Technical report. 2015